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Lee Rybeck Lynd
Paul E. and Joan H. Queneau Distinguished Professor of Engineering
Program Area Lead: Energy Engineering
Adjunct Professor of Biology
Director, Grand Challenges Scholars Program
Co-Founder and Chief Scientific Officer, Enchi Corporation
Consolidated Bioprocessing Team Leader, DOE Center for Bioenergy Innovation
Executive Committee Chair, Global Sustainable Bioenergy Initiative
A member of the Dartmouth faculty since 1987, Professor Lynd is an expert on utilization of plant biomass for production of energy. Spanning science, technology, and policy domains, and including leading research on fundamental and biotechnological aspects of microbial cellulose utilization, his body of work includes over 250 publications, over 38,000 citations, an h-index of 84, and an !10-index of 231 (Google Scholar), as well as 23 granted patents. Lynd is co-founder, president, and director of biofuel start-up Terragia Corp, and Consolidated Bioprocessing Team lead for the Center for Bioenergy Innovation.
In the past, he was founder and executive committee chair of the Global Sustainable Bioenergy Initiative, co-founder, CSO, and director of Mascoma and Enchi Corps, co-leader (with Nathanael Greene of the Natural Resources Defense Council) of The Role of Biomass in America's Energy Future project, and biofuel industry representative on a committee advisory to the executive office of President Clinton on reducing greenhouse gas emission from personal vehicles. He has three times testified before the US Senate, and has been featured in prominent media such as Wired, Forbes, Nova, and in the Nobel Conference. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and has received numerous awards and honors, including: Inaugural winner of the Lemelson MIT Sustainability Prize for inventions and innovations that enhance economic opportunity and community well-being while protecting and restoring the natural environment, and the Charles D. Scott Award for distinguished contributions to the field of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals.
Microbial cellulose utilization; metabolic engineering; innovative biomass processing technologies; sustainable bioenergy futures
- BS, Biology, Bates College 1979
- MS, Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison 1981
- MS, Engineering Sciences, Dartmouth 1984
- DE, Engineering, Dartmouth 1987
- Charles Thom Award, Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (2021)
- Thayer Distinguished Research Award for Faculty (2020)
- Keynote Presentation, MIT Applied Energy A+B Symposium (2019)
- Keynote Lecture, Canadian Society of Microbiologists (2018)
- Keynote lecture, 40th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals (2018)
- Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology’s Waksman Outstanding Teaching Award (2016)
- Winthrop Rockefeller Distinguished Lecture, University of Arkansas (2013)
- Keynote Lecture, 35th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals (2013)
- Professor Extraordinary of Microbiology, Department of Microbiology, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa (2002–present)
- AAAS Fellow (2012)
- University of Georgia Charter Lecture (2012)
- Mines Medal honoring scientists and engineers who have shown exceptional leadership and innovation, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology (2011)
- 2010: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, Best Paper of the Year (2010)
- American Society of Microbiology Division O Lecture (2008)
- Inaugural Winner, Lemelson-MIT Sustainability Award for Inventions and Innovations that Enhance Economic Opportunity and Community Well-Being While Protecting and Restoring the Natural Environment (2007)
- Nobel Conference Lecture (2007)
- Fellow, Institute of Biological Engineering (2007)
- Charles D. Scott Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Field of Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals (2005)
- Organizing Committee and Keynote Speaker, First Botswana Symposium on Science and Technology for Development (2000)
- Charles A. Lindbergh grant in recognition of efforts to promote a balance between environmental preservation and technological advancement (1991–1994)
- Presidential Young Investigator (1989–1994)
- Organizing Committee Member, Brazilian Bioethanol Science and Technology Meeting (2020 & 2021)
- Editor, Special Issue on Microbial Cellulose Utilization, Microorganisms (2021)
- Participant, National Academy of Science Sackler Colloquium on the Scientific Status and Challenges in Decarbonizing our Energy (2018)
- Keynote Lecture, Canadian Society of Microbiologists (2018)
- Invited Participant, Workshop on Ensuring Energy Security Through a Low-Carbon Economy. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado (2016)
- Invited Participant, SCOPE Mini RAP Workshop on Bioenergy and Sustainability. Sao Paulo Research Foundation, Sao Paulo, Brazil (2016)
- Invited Participant, Getting Near-Zero. Aspen Global Change Institute (2016)
- Organizing Committee, Lorentz Center workshop “Bridging Technological and Social Innovation for a Biobased Economy, the Netherlands (2016)
- Organizing Committee Member, biannual Clostridium meetings (2016–present)
- Host, Clostridium XIV meeting (2016)
- Invited Participant, Low-Carbon Energy Workshop. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2015)
- Invited Participant. Debate on Bioenergy and Sustainability. World Bank (2015)
- Organizing Committee, Joint Expert Meeting on Pasture and Remote Sensing. GEOGLAM RAPP Community of Practice. Campinas, Brazil (2015)
- Scientific Advisory Committee, SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) Rapid Assessment Process on Biofuels and Sustainability (2013-2015)
- Scientific Committee, Bioenergy and Food Security Workshop, International Food Policy Research Institute (2014)
- Scientific Advisory Committee, SCOPE (Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment) Rapid Assessment Process on Biofuels and Sustainability (2013)
- Advisory Board member, BioEnergy Research (2010–present)
- Lecturer, Advanced Course on Microbial Physiology and Fermentation, Delft Technical University, The Netherlands (2005–2015)
- Manager, Link Energy Foundation Energy Fellowship Program (1998–present)
- Visiting Scholar, University of Campinas, Brazil (2012)
- Editor, Biofuels and Fine Chemicals Section, Manual of Industrial Microbiology (2008–2009)
- Lecturer, Penn State Biomass Energy Short Course (2008–2009)
- Advisor, Renewable and Alternative Energy Portfolio, South African National Energy Research Institute (2007–2009)
- Member, Minnesota Cellulosic Ethanol Working Group (2007–2009)
- Bioenergy Section Editor, Current Opinion in Biotechnology (2007–2008)
- Organizing Committee Member, Annual Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals (1996–2009)
- Co-Leader, "Reimagining Agriculture to Accommodate Large Scale Energy Production," NSF-funded workshop (2007)
- Organizing Committee Member, American Academy of Microbiology Symposium on Microbial Energy Production (2005)
- Co-leader, The Role of Biomass in America’s Energy Future Project (2003–2009)
- Visiting Professor, University of Stellenbosch, South Africa (2002)
- Member and R&D area coordinator, Biomass and Agriculture Working Group of the Energy Future Coalition (2003)
- Associate Editor (1995–2008) and Editorial Board Member (2008–present), Biotechnology and Bioengineering
- Biofuels Industry Representative, Advisory Committee to the Executive Office of President Clinton on Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Personal Vehicles (1994–1995)
- Sustainable Fuels from Plants we Can't Eat, Imperial College (2022)
- The Role of Biogenic Carbon in a Sustainable World, Shell Science Council (2022)
- Bioenergy and Development, University of Guyana Green Institute (2022)
- Microbial Cellulose Utilization: From Applications to Fundamentals and Back Again. Charles Thom Award Lecture, Society for Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (2021)
- Invited presenter, Designing the Bioeconomy for Deep Decarbonization Workshop, Department of Energy (2021)
- Invited presenter, Chemical Engineering in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities, National Academy of Sciences (2021)
Lynd Research Lab
Lynd Research Lab
The research lab at Dartmouth led by Professor Lee Lynd is active in research on the following topics:
- Microbial Cellulose Utilization, including fundamental and applied aspects
- Metabolic Engineering, focusing on thermophilic cellulolytic bacteria for fuel production
- Innovative Biomass Processing Technologies, including development, design, and evaluation
- Sustainable Bioenergy Futures, including resource, environment, and economic development
We approach these topics from a diversity of academic disciplines with molecular biology, microbiology, chemical/biochemical engineering providing the foundation for the first three. Consistent with the "Pasteur's Quadrant" model articulated by Donald Stokes (Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1997), we see advancing applied capability and increased fundamental understanding as having strong potential to be convergent and mutually-reinforcing, and we aspire to work in this mode.
A central theme of the Lynd group is processing cellulosic biomass in a single step without added enzymes. Such "consolidated bioprocessing" (CBP) is a potential breakthrough, and "is widely considered to be the ultimate low-cost configuration for cellulose hydrolysis and fermentation" (joint DOE/USDA Roadmap, 2007). We are focused on production of ethanol, a promising renewable fuel. The CBP strategy is however potentially applicable to a very broad range of fuels and chemicals.
Microbial Cellulose Utilization:
- Kubis, MR, EK Holwerda, LR Lynd. 2022. Declining Carbohydrate Solubilization with Increasing Solids Loading during Fermentation of Cellulosic Feedstocks by Clostridium thermocellum: Documentation and Diagnostic Tests. Biotechnology for Biofuels and Bioproducts 15:12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13068-022-02110-4.
- Chirania, P, EK Holwerda, RJ Giannone, X Liang, S Poudel, JC Ellis, YJ Bomble, LR Lynd. 2022. Metaproteomics reveals enzymatic strategies deployed by anaerobic microbiomes to maintain lignicellulose deconstruction at high solids. Nature Communications 13 (1), 1-13.
- Beri, D, C Herring, S Blahova, S Poudel, RJ Gianonne, RL Hettich, LR Lynd. 2021. Coculture with hemicellulose-fermenting microbes reverses inhibition of corn stover solubilization by Clostridium thermocellum at elevated solids loadings. Biotechnology for BioFuels and Bioproducts. 14, 24.
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- Foster, F, VS Boorla, S Dash, S Gopalakrishnan, TB Jacobson, DG Olson, D Amador-Noguez, LR Lynd, CD Maranas. 2022. Assessing the impact of substrate-level enzyme regulations limiting ethanol titer in Clostridium thermocellum using a core kinetic model. Metabolic Engineering. 69:286-301.
- S Hon, T Jacobson, DM Stevenson, MI Maloney, RJ Giannone, RL Hettich, D Amador-Noguez, DG Olson, LR Lynd. 2022. Increasing the Thermodynamic Driving Force of the Phosphofructokinase Reaction in Clostridium thermocellum. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 88:e01258-22.
- Jacobson, TB, TK Korosh, DM Stevenson, C Foster, C Maranas, DG Olson, LR Lynd, D Amador-Noguez. 2020. In vivo thermodynamic analysis of glycolysis in Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum using 13C and 2H tracers. Msystems 5, no. 2 (2020).
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Innovative Biomass Processing Technologies:
- Lynd, LR, GT Beckham et al. (21 coauthors). 2022. Toward low-cost biological and hybrid processing of cellulosic biomass to fuels. Energy and Environmental Science. 15:938–990.
- Hannon, JR, LR Lynd, O Andrade, PT Benavides, GT Beckham, MJ Biddy, N Brown, MF Chagas, BH Davison, T Foust, TL Junqueira, MS Laser, Z Li, T Richard, L Tao, GA Tuskan, M Wang, J Woods, CE Wyman. 2019. Technoeconomic and life-cycle analysis of single-step catalytic conversion of wet ethanol into fungible fuel blendstocks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2019 Nov 25. pii: 201821684. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1821684116. PubMed PMID: 31767762.
- Lynd, LR. 2017. The grand challenge of cellulosic biofuels. Nature Biotechnology, 35(10), 912–915. http://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3976.
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Sustainable Bioenergy Futures:
- Allee, A, LR Lynd, and V Vaze. 2021. Cross-national analysis of food security drivers: comparing results based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale and Global Food Security Index. Food Security. 13:1245-1261.
- Monteiro, LA, AM Allee, EE Campbell, LR Lynd, JR Soares, D Jaiswal, JC Oliveira, MS Vianna, AE Morishige, GKDA Figueiredo, RAC Lamparelli, ND Mueller, J Gerber, LAB Cortez, JJ Sheehan. 2020. Assessment of yield gaps on global grazed-only permanent pasture using climate binning. Glob Change Biol. 26: 1820– 1832. doi: 10.1111/gcb.14925.
- Moreira, MMR, JEA Seabra, LR Lynd, SM Arantes, MP Cunha, JJM Guilhoto. 2020. Socio-Environmental and Land-Use Impacts of Double-Cropped Maize Ethanol in Brazil. Nature Sustainability, 1–8.
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See full publications list on ORCID
- Increased ethanol production by thermophilic microorganisms with deletion of individual HFS hydrogenase subunits | 10,619,172
- Systems and methods for enhancing microbial conversion of biomass using mechanical augmentation | 10,533,194
- Thermophilic organisms for conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol | 10,066,217
- Construction of protrophic/celluloytic yeast strains expressing tethered and secreted cellulases | 9,994,835
- Flow-through pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with inorganic nanoporous membranes | 9,932,648
- Nucleic acid molecules conferring enhanced ethanol tolerance and microorganisms having enhanced tolerance to ethanol | 8,629,255
- Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass | 8,394,611
- Continuous process for making ethanol | 5,837,506
- Continuous process for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials without mechanical agitation | 5,258,293
- Distillation process for ethanol | 4,961,826
- Distillation systems and methods | 4,626,321
- Propagation of microbial cells on single carbon products | 4,425,432