* PVD and CVD
- Difference between the two processes becomes blurred.
- CVD now makes extensive use of plasma
- Reactive evaporation and reactive sputtering occur in a chemical environment.
- CVD and PVD reactors are now combined in one single piece of equipment in new semiconductor processing operation
Facing strong competition from sputtering and CVD
Generally on the decline.
will continue to be the most important PVD process in Silicon VLSI fabrication for some time.
But there are some challenges:
- Uniform films over larger wafers, higher throughput
- The ability to improve step coverage or even planized deposited films , this feature is avidly sought in new sputtering equipment designs
- The machines will need to operate at higher levels of cleaness and more automatically
- Greater reliability (e.g. >90% up time)will be expected
- Techniques to replace (or enhance) sputter etching for in situ cleaning of small area will be developed
- As multilevel interconnected technologies are developed, more multilayer films will be utilized.