Convection Models


Several statistical models of high-latitude plasma convection have been derived using data from one or more of the SuperDARN radars. The various models are briefly described below. More details can be found in the journal articles listed under the appropriate model. Click on the model heading or on the navigation bar to the left to view convection patterns.


Interactive Dynamical Model

A dynamical model based on the CS10 coefficients. Convection patterns are obtained for any combination of IMF clock angle, solar wind electric field, and dipole tilt angle that is within the bounds of the parameters. No extrapolation is performed. Both web and IDL widget interfaces are available.

Features:
  • same as CS10 Model
  • coefficient interpolation
  • web and IDL widget interfaces
References:

CS10 Model

A statistical model based on PSR10 that expands the period of data to cover 1998-2006, adds a solar wind dependence, and adjusts binning parameters to improve data coverage across bins.

Features:
  • 1998 -- 2006
  • 9 northern hemisphere and 6 southern hemisphere SuperDARN radars
  • transverse IMF clock-angle bins:
    IMF clock-angle  Model
      0° ± 25.0° Bz+
      47.5° ± 22.5° Bz+/By+
      90° ± 20.0° By+
      132.5° ± 22.5° Bz-/By+
      180° ± 25.0° Bz-
      -47.5° ± 22.5° Bz+/By-
      -90° ± 20.0° By-
      -132.5° ± 22.5° Bz-/By-
  • solar wind electric field magnitude bins:
    Esw (mV/m)
      0 - 1.2
      1.2 - 1.7
      1.7 - 2.2
      2.2 - 2.9
      2.9 - 4.1
      4.1 - 8.0
  • Dipole tilt angle:
    Dipole Tilt
      negative
      neutral
      positive
References:

PSR10 Model

A statistical model that incorporates multiple radars from both northern and southern hemispheres. Binning by IMF clock angle, magnitude, and dipole tilt angle.

Features:
  • 1998 -- 2002
  • 9 northern hemisphere and 6 southern hemisphere SuperDARN radars
  • transverse IMF clock-angle bins:
    IMF clock-angle  Model
      0° ± 22.5° Bz+
      45° ± 22.5° Bz+/By+
      90° ± 22.5° By+
      135° ± 22.5° Bz-/By+
      180° ± 22.5° Bz-
      -45° ± 22.5° Bz+/By-
      -90° ± 22.5° By-
      -135° ± 22.5° Bz-/By-
  • IMF magnitude bins:
    IMF Bt (nT)  
      0 - 3
      3 - 5
      5 - 10
  • Dipole tilt angle:
    Dipole Tilt
      negative
      neutral
      positive
References:

RG96 Model

The first statistical model derived from Goose Bay SuperDARN radar data over the period of 1987-1993.

Features:
  • 1987 -- 1993
  • Goose Bay data only
  • transverse IMF clock-angle bins:
    IMF clock-angle  Model
      0° ± 22.5° Bz+
      45° ± 22.5° Bz+/By+
      90° ± 22.5° By+
      135° ± 22.5° Bz-/By+
      180° ± 22.5° Bz-
      -45° ± 22.5° Bz+/By-
      -90° ± 22.5° By-
      -135° ± 22.5° Bz-/By-
  • IMF magnitude bins:
    IMF Bt (nT)  
      0 - 4
      4 - 6
      6 - 12
  • 2- ≤ Kp ≤ 3+
References:

Kp-based Model

A model of convection using data from combinations of the different latitude 'layers' of SuperDARN: mid-latitude, high-latitude, and polar. Convection patterns are derived for different Kp levels (0-6) using data from 2009-present. Further binning is performed by IMF By.

Features:
  • Inclusion of mid-latitude data
    • expansion to 50 degrees magnetic latitude
    • Significant improvement in description of sub-auroral flows
    • Increased transpolar potentials
  • Inclusion of very high latitude data
    • Better description of polar cap flows
    • Increased transpolar potentials
References: