Journal Articles

Quantum Wells & Optical Properties

02800563 INSPEC Abstract Number: A87007343, B87006412

Title: A bird's-eye view on the evolution of semiconductor superlattices and quantum wells

Author(s): Esaki, L.

Author Affiliation: IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,

NY, USA

Journal: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics vol.QE-22, no.9 p.

1611-24

Publication Date: Sept. 1986 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Significant milestones during the past 17-year developmental

path in research on semiconductor superlattices and quantum wells are

presented. Emphasis is placed on experimental investigations in the device

physics of reduced dimensionality and the materials science of

heteroepitaxial growth. (196 Refs)

03134750 INSPEC Abstract Number: A88068789

Title: Optical spectroscopy of excitons in quantum wells

Author(s): Esaki, L.; Vina, L.; Mendez, E.E.; Chang, L.L.

Author Affiliation: IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,

NY, USA

Journal: Journal of Luminescence vol.40-41 p.12-16

Publication Date: Feb. 1988 Country of Publication: Netherlands

Conference Title: International Conference on Luminescence - Excited

State Processes in Condensed Matter

Conference Sponsor: Beijing Chem. Works; Beijing Gen. Res. Inst.

Nonferrous Metals; Beijing Normal Univ.; et al

Conference Date: 17-21 Aug. 1987 Conference Location: Beijing, China

Language: English Document Type: Conference Paper (PA); Journal Paper

(JP)

Abstract: The main aspects of electric-field effects on excitons in

GaAs-GaAlAs quantum wells by spectroscopic studies are presented, including

thickness dependence and coupling between excitonic states. (18 Refs)

00696530 INSPEC Abstract Number: A74079407

Title: Quantum states of confined carriers in very thin Al/sub x/Ga/sub

1-x/As-GaAs-Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As heterostructures

Author(s): Dingle, R.; Wiegmann, W.; Henry, C.H.

Author Affiliation: Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ, USA

Journal: Physical Review Letters vol.33, no.14 p.827-30

Publication Date: 30 Sept. 1974 Country of Publication: USA

CODEN: PRLTAO ISSN: 0031-9007

Language: English Document Type: Journal Paper (JP)

Treatment: Theoretical (T); Experimental (X)

Abstract: From observations of the absorption spectra of thin GaAs layers

( approximately 70-500AA) deposited between Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As crystals

bound carrier states are investigated. The spectra in the band-edge region

of GaAs indicate that the structure behaves as if it has two rectangular

potential wells, one trapping electrons and the other holes. The depths of

these wells related to the difference in semiconductor band gaps is found.

(10 Refs)

(the classic first optical work)

Title: Linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor quantum

wells

Author(s): Schmitt-Rink, S.; Chemla, D.S.; Miller, D.A.B.

Author Affiliation: AT&T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ, USA

Journal: Advances in Physics vol.38, no.2 p.89-188

Publication Date: March-April 1989 Country of Publication: UK

Abstract: The authors review the experimental and theoretical

investigations of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of

semiconductor quantum well structures, including the effects of

electrostatic fields, extrinsic carriers and real or virtual photocarriers.

(338 Refs)

02523262 INSPEC Abstract Number: A85106484

Title: Room-temperature excitonic nonlinear-optical effects in semiconductor quantum-well structures

Author(s): Chemla, D.S.; Miller, D.A.B.

Author Affiliation: AT&T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ, USA

Journal: Journal of the Optical Society of America B (Optical Physics)

vol.2, no.7 p.1155-73

Publication Date: July 1985 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The authors review the nonlinear-optical effects observed at

room temperature in semiconductor quantum-well structures photoexcited near

the band gap. A comprehensive discussion of optical transitions in these

microstructures is given, including excitonic effects and the specific

features of room-temperature exciton resonances. Experimental

investigations using continuous-wave, picosecond-, and femtosecond-laser

sources are presented. They show extremely efficient nonlinear processes.

In the case of excitations that are long compared with the

exciton-ionization time, the induced changes in absorption and refraction

do not depend on the wavelength or on the duration of excitation. These

changes depend only on the density of absorbed photons and are interpreted

in terms of electron-hole plasma screening and band filling. In contrast,

for ultrashort excitation, nonlinear processes depend critically on the

excitation wavelength. The selective generation of excitons is found to

produce effects larger than a plasma of the same density. This unexpected

result is shown to arise from the low temperature of the exciton gas before

it interacts with the lattice and from the decrease of screening that is

the reduced dimensionality of quantum-well structures. (77 Refs)

03113174 INSPEC Abstract Number: A88042988, B88027165

Title: The physics of the quantum well laser

Author(s): Weisbuch, C.; Nagle, J.

Author Affiliation: Lab. Central de Recherches, Thomson-CSF, Orsay,

France

Journal: Physica Scripta Volume T vol.T19A p.209-14

Publication Date: 1987 Country of Publication: Sweden

Conference Title: 7th General Conference of the Condensed Matter Division

of the European Physical Society

Conference Sponsor: Ansaldo; Univ. Pisa; Consiglio Nazionale Richerche;

et al

Conference Date: 7-10 April 1987 Conference Location: Pisa, Italy

Abstract: The authors review some of the properties of quantum well laser

(QWLs), with emphasis on the two-dimensional origins of these. It is shown

that two main effects determine the lowering of threshold current, namely

the diminished density of states (DOS) (favourable factor) and the

diminished optical confinement (unfavorable factor). The good operation of

GaAs-GaAlAs QWLs also relies on more subtle effects such as the square 2D

DOS, the enhanced optical matrix element, the high quantum efficiency . . .

The poor operation of GaInAs based quantum well lasers is due to the

detrimental Auger effect which is larger than in 3D lasers because of the

higher carrier densities at which QWLs operate. Several other useful

properties of QWLs in the performance (high-frequency, narrow-line) and

manufacturing fields are discussed. Problems and advantages of 1 and 0D

quantum-wire and quantum-box lasers are briefly evaluated. (34 Refs)

Title: Femtosecond dynamics of excitons under extreme magnetic confinement

Author(s): Stark, J.B.; Knox, W.H.; Chemla, D.S.; Schafer, W.;

Schmitt-Rink, S.; Stafford, C.

Author Affiliation: AT&T Bell Labs., Holmdel, NJ, USA

Journal: Physical Review Letters vol.65, no.24 p.3033-6

Publication Date: 10 Dec. 1990 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The resonant optical nonlinearities of GaAs/AlGaAs quantum

wells are measured with femtosecond time resolution, as the

quasi-two-dimensional states are further confined into quasizero dimensions

by a perpendicular magnetic field. The authors apply fields up to 12 T to

demonstrate that exciton-exciton Coulomb interactions are strongly modified

by quasi-zero-dimensional confinement, in agreement with many-body theory.

These measurements demonstrate for the first time the remarkable result

that at high magnetic fields an ensemble of 1 s electron-hole pairs behaves

like a gas of noninteracting particles. (10 Refs)

03634837 INSPEC Abstract Number: A90075351, B90036219

Title: Theory of semiconductor superlattice electronic structure

Author(s): Smith, D.L.; Mailhiot, C.

Author Affiliation: Los Alamos Nat. Lab., NM, USA

Journal: Reviews of Modern Physics vol.62, no.1 p.173-234

Publication Date: Jan. 1990 Country of Publication: USA

CODEN: RMPHAT ISSN: 0034-6861

Language: English Document Type: Journal Paper (JP)

Treatment: Bibliography (B); General, Review (G); Theoretical (T)

Abstract: The authors review the theory of semiconductor superlattice

electronic structure. First a survey of theoretical methods is presented.

These methods can be divided into two general classes: the supercell

approach in which the superlattice is viewed as a material with a large

unit cell, and the boundary-condition approach in which bulk wave functions

in the constituent semiconductors are matched at the superlattice

interfaces. Supercell approaches are essentially the same as conventional

band-structure methods. They can only be applied to thin-layer

superlattices because of numerical cost. The authors discuss problems of

interface matching that occur in various boundary-condition methods and

relate these methods to each other. A particular boundary-condition method

is used to discuss the electronic structure of various III-V semiconductor

superlattices. Emphasis is placed on discussing the qualitatively different

behavior that can arise because of different energy-band lineups, strain

conditions, and growth orientations. The authors compare the results of

three commonly used boundary-condition methods and find generally good

agreement. (209 Refs)

Wires and Dots

Title: Optical properties of III-V semiconductor quantum wires and dots

Author(s): Kash, K.

Author Affiliation: Bellcore, Red Bank, NJ, USA

Journal: Journal of Luminescence vol.46, no.2 p.69-82

Publication Date: March 1990 Country of Publication: Netherlands

Abstract: The author reviews the brief history and present status of

research on the optical properties of III-V semiconductor quantum wires and

dots. These efforts are driven in part by predictions of interesting linear

and nonlinear optical properties for these structures. Experimental work

has focused on various schemes to make uniform arrays of structures. New

techniques developed for making these arrays have been followed by the

observation of large zero-point energies and subband splittings for

electrons, and modified exciton binding energies and selection rules for

optical transitions in quantum wires. (94 Refs)

03136689 INSPEC Abstract Number: A88069106

Title: Observation of discrete electronic states in a zero-dimensional

semiconductor nanostructure

Author(s): Reed, M.A.; Randall, J.N.; Aggarwal, R.J.; Matyi, R.J.; Moore,

T.M.; Wetsel, A.E.

Author Affiliation: Central Res. Labs., Texas Instruments Inc., Dallas,

TX, USA

Journal: Physical Review Letters vol.60, no.6 p.535-7

Publication Date: 8 Feb. 1988 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Electronic transport through a three-dimensionally confined

semiconductor quantum well ('quantum dot') has been investigated. Fine

structure observed in resonant tunneling through the quantum dot

corresponds to the discrete density of states of a zero-dimensional system.

(18 Refs)

02448116 INSPEC Abstract Number: A85058028

Title: Relativistic one-dimensional hydrogen atom

Author(s): Spector, H.N.; Lee, J.

Author Affiliation: GTE Labs., Waltham, MA, USA

Journal: American Journal of Physics vol.53, no.3 p.248-51

Publication Date: March 1985 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The problem of the one-dimensional hydrogen atom has evoked

interest because of its relevance to the behavior of hydrogeniclike atoms

in the presence of strong magnetic fields and of hydrogenic impurities

confined in quantum-well wire structures. The binding energy of the

one-dimensional nonrelativistic hydrogen atom has been found to be infinite

in its ground state. The authors solved the relativistic hydrogen atom

problem for the one-dimensional case using the Klein-Gordon equation. They

find that the binding energy in the ground state for the one-dimensional

relativistic hydrogen atom is finite and is of order of the rest mass

energy of the electron. Therefore a relativistic treatment removes the

infinite binding energy found for the ground state for the one-dimensional

nonrelativistic hydrogen atom. (29 Refs)

03565159 INSPEC Abstract Number: A90035025

Title: One-dimensional magnetoexcitons in GaAs/Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As

quantum wires

Author(s): Kohl, M.; Heitmann, D.; Grambow, P.; Ploog, K.

Author Affiliation: Max-Planck-Inst. fur Festkorperforschung, Stuttgart,

West Germany

Journal: Physical Review Letters vol.63, no.19 p.2124-7

Publication Date: 6 Nov. 1989 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: GaAs/Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As quantum-well wires with lateral

dimensions of 70 nm have been prepared by mesa etching of 14-nm-wide

quantum-well systems. In photoluminescence excitation two heavy-hole

exciton transitions, hh/sub 11/ and hh/sub 12/, separated by 2.5 meV, were

observed. These transitions result from 1D quantum-confined energy states

in the narrow wires. The 1D character was reflected in a strong

polarization dependence and in a unique magnetic field behavior indicating

an enhancement of the excitonic interaction of the 1D ground state by about

15%. (18 Refs)

Nanostructures and Transport

03474277 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89128438, B89068680

Title: Physics of microstructures

Author(s): Movaghar, B.

Author Affiliation: GEC Hirst Res. Centre, Wembley, UK

Journal: Canadian Journal of Physics vol.67, no.4 p.304-10

Publication Date: April 1989 Country of Publication: Canada

U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code: 0008-4204/89/$3.00+0.00

Conference Title: Fourth Canadian Semiconductor Technology Conference

Conference Date: Aug. 1988 Conference Location: Ottawa, Ont., Canada

Abstract: A brief review is presented of the novel physics associated

with submicrometre structures produced by molecular beam epitaxy and

electron beam lithography. In low-temperature transport, the most important

effect is the achievement of extraordinary long coherence lengths (10 mu m)

or high mobilities for carriers moving in two dimensions and constructed

topologies. Ballistic motion, fractional quantum Hall effect, and

Bohm-Aharonov interference are direct consequences. When barriers are

present in multiple quantum well and superlattice structures, there is

resonant tunnelling, Stark localization, and magneto-Stark transport. In

optics, the main novelty is the consequence of the quantum well

confinement, giving rise to sharp inter-subband transitions and excitonic

effects. The strongly wavelength-dependent absorption can be of

considerable importance in photodiodes, wavelength demultiplexers, and

infrared detectors. (18 Refs)

03521824 INSPEC Abstract Number: A90008802, B90001240

Title: Electronic transport in low-dimensional structures

Author(s): Harris, J.J.; Pals, J.A.; Woltjer, R.

Author Affiliation: Philips Res. Labs., Redhill, UK

Journal: Reports on Progress in Physics vol.52, no.10 p.1217-66

Publication Date: Oct. 1989 Country of Publication: UK

Abstract: Reviews the transport properties of electrons in semiconductor

heterojunction structures, in which the degrees of freedom for motion of

the charge carriers are reduced by confining potentials, thereby producing

low- (i.e. two-, one- or even zero-) dimensional electronic structures. A

theoretical treatment of quantisation effects due to two-dimensional (2D)

and one-dimensional (1D) confinement, with and without an applied magnetic

field, will be given, and used to interpret a range of experimental results

obtained from GaAs/Al/sub x/Ga/sub 1-x/As 2D and 1D heterojunction

structures. For 2D samples, these results cover low-field mobility

measurements, which give information on the scattering mechanisms present,

and high-field magnetotransport studies, including the quantum Hall effect

and parallel conduction processes. In 1D structures, quantum and ballistic

transport processes will be discussed. (244 Refs)

00139209 INSPEC Abstract Number: A70037456, B70021028

Title: Superlattice and negative differential conductivity in

semiconductors

Author(s): Esaki, L.; Tsu, R.

Author Affiliation: IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,

NY, USA

Journal: IBM Journal of Research and Development vol.14, no.1 p.

61-5

Publication Date: Jan. 1970 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The authors consider a one-dimensional periodic potential, or

superlattice, in monocrystalline semiconductors formed by a periodic

variation of alloy composition or of impurity density introduced during

epitaxial growth. If the period of a superlattice, of the order of 100AA,

is shorter than the electron mean free path, a series of narrow allowed and

forbidden bands is expected owing to the subdivision of the Brillouin zone

into a series of minizones. If the scattering time of electrons meets a

threshold condition, the combined effect of the narrow energy band and the

narrow wave-vector zone makes it possible for electrons to be excited with

moderate electric fields to an energy and momentum beyond an inflection

point in the E-k relation; this results in a negative differential

conductance in the direction of the superlattice.

(an original classic but must be ILLd--not at Dartmouth)

XXBB Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 60, No. 4, October 1988

Pages 873 - 916

XXTT Adiabatic quantum transport in multiply connected systems

XXAU J. E. Avron

XXLO Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel

XXLO Division of

Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology,

Pasadena, California 91125

XXAU A. Raveh

XXAU B. Zur

XXLO Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000, Israel

XXDA #TP T #YR 88 #XN 0365Db #XN 0560+w #XN 7210-d

XXJN #56 IL #80 10 #81 WAVE FUNCTIONS; ADIABATIC PROCESSES; HAMILTONIANS;

TOPOLOGY; QUANTUM MECHANICS :T1; QUANTUM OPERATORS; KUBO FORMULA; QUANTUM HALL

EFFECT; TRANSPORT PROCESSES :Q1; NETWORK ANALYSIS;

XXAB The adiabatic quantum transport in multiply connected systems is examined.

The systems considered have several holes, usually three or more, threaded by

independent flux tubes, the transport properties of which are described by

matrix-valued functions of the fluxes. The main theme is the

differential-geometric interpretation of Kubo's formulas as curvatures. Because

of this interpretation, and because flux space can be identified with the

multitorus, the adiabatic conductances have topological significance, related

to the first Chern character. In particular, they have quantized averages. The

authors describe various classes of quantum Hamiltonians that describe multiply

connected systems and investigate their basic properties. They concentrate on

models that reduce to the study of finite-dimensional matrices. In particular,

the reduction of the ``free-electron'' Schrodinger operator, on a network of

thin wires, to a matrix problem is described in detail. The authors define

``loop currents'' and investigate their properties and their dependence on the

choice of flux tubes. They introduce a method of topological classification of

networks according to their transport. This leads to the analysis of level

crossings and to the association of ``charges'' with crossing points. Networks

made with three equilateral triangles are investigated and classified, both

numerically and analytically. Many of these networks turn out to have

nontrivial topological transport properties for both the free-electron and the

tight-binding models. The authors conclude with some open problems and

questions.

03923127 INSPEC Abstract Number: A91092749

Title: Ballistic and adiabatic electron transport in 1 and 2 dimensions

Author(s): Beenakker, C.W.J.

Author Affiliation: Philips Res. Labs., Eindhoven, Netherlands

Journal: Physica B vol.169 p.355

Publication Date: Feb. 1991 Country of Publication: Netherlands

Conference Title: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Low

Temperature Physics

Conference Date: 16-22 Aug. 1990 Conference Location: Brighton, UK

Abstract: An overview is given of the work of the Philips/Delft

collaboration on low-temperature electrical conduction through

nanostructures in a two-dimensional electron gas, with an emphasis on the

present theoretical understanding of the phenomena observed. The central

vehicle for the investigation is the quantum point contact, which is a

constriction of variable width comparable to the Fermi wavelength. Two

transport regimes are distinguished: Ballistic transport at zero or weak

magnetic fields, and adiabatic transport in strong magnetic fields. Major

topics are: (i) conductance quantisation: (ii) coherent electron focusing;

(iii) electron beam collimation; (iv) electron billiards; (v) edge channels

in the integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. (0 Refs)

03314787 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89030890

Title: Absence of backscattering in the quantum Hall effect in multiprobe

conductors

Author(s): Buttiker, M.

Author Affiliation: IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,

NY, USA

Journal: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter) vol.38, no.14 p.

9375-89

Publication Date: 15 Nov. 1988 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Under certain conditions, high magnetic fields in a

two-dimensional conductor lead to a suppression of both elastic and

inelastic backscattering. This, together with the formation of edge states,

is used to develop a picture of the integer quantum Hall effect in open

multiprobe conductors. The authors consider both ideal contacts without

elastic scattering and also disordered contacts. Ideal contacts populate

edge states equally whereas disordered contacts lead to an initial

nonequilibrium population of the edge states. In Hall samples much larger

than an inelastic length, and in the presence of disordered contacts, the

sample edges become equipotential lines only an inelastic scattering length

away from the current source and current drain contacts. Samples so small

that the carriers can travel from one contact to the other without

inelastic relaxation do not exhibit exact quantization if the contacts are

disordered. In all cases they find that the quantum Hall effect occurs only

if the sample exhibits at least two sets of equilibrated edge states which

do not interact via elastic or inelastic scattering. The onset of

interaction between the two sets of edge states leads to deviations from

exact quantization and eventually to a breakdown of the quantum Hall

effect. (58 Refs)

03348318 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89048880

Title: Negative resistance fluctuations at resistance minima in narrow

quantum Hall conductors

Author(s): Buttiker, M.

Author Affiliation: IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,

NY, USA

Journal: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter) vol.38, no.17 p.

12724-7

Publication Date: 15 Dec. 1988 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Negative resistances are a signature of four-terminal

resistance measurements. The author constructs a simple model of a

localized impurity state in a four-probe conductor. A recently proposed

multiprobe resistance formula is combined with the multichannel

Breit-Wigner formalism to describe tunneling between edge states via the

localized state. Deviations from the quantized Hall resistance are

discussed and the symmetry with regard to magnetic field reversal is

investigated. The model permits negative longitudinal resistance

fluctuations which have been observed in recent experiments. (17 Refs)

03437093 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89101680

Title: Influence of geometry on the Hall effect in ballistic wires

Author(s): Ford, C.J.B.; Washburn, S.; Buttiker, M.; Knoedler, C.M.;

Hong, J.M.

Author Affiliation: IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,

NY, USA

Journal: Physical Review Letters vol.62, no.23 p.2724-7

Publication Date: 5 June 1989 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The authors present a systematic investigation of the influence

of cross geometry on the Hall effect in narrow ballistic wires. Various

differently shaped cross regions have been fabricated, which demonstrate

that near zero magnetic field the Hall resistance can be quenched, enhanced

over its classical value, or even negative. A 'last plateau' is seen in all

devices, proving that its cause is not intimately linked to the quenching.

A simple physical picture is presented showing how these effects come about

from the scattering of electrons in such geometries. (16 Refs)

03829770 INSPEC Abstract Number: A91036614

Title: Scattering theory of thermal and excess noise in open conductors

Author(s): Buttiker, M.

Author Affiliation: IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,

NY, USA

Journal: Physical Review Letters vol.65, no.23 p.2901-4

Publication Date: 3 Dec. 1990 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Thermal fluctuations at equilibrium and excess fluctuations in

the presence of transport in open multiprobe conductors are related to the

scattering matrix of the conductor. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem for

multiprobe conductors is discussed. A general expression for the excess

noise in the presence of transport is derived. These results are applied to

conductors which exhibit the quantized Hall effect. If backscattering is

suppressed, excess noise is also suppressed. (16 Refs)

03366153 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89061581

Title: Skipping orbits, traversing trajectories, and quantum ballistic

transport in microstructures

Author(s): Beenakker, C.W.J.; van Houten, H.; van Wees, B.J.

Author Affiliation: Philips Res. Labs., Eindhoven, Netherlands

Journal: Superlattices and Microstructures vol.5, no.1 p.127-32

Publication Date: 1989 Country of Publication: UK

U.S. Copyright Clearance Center Code: 0749-6036/89/010127+06$02.00

Conference Title: Fourth International Conference on Superlattices,

Microstructures and Microdevices

Conference Date: 8-12 Aug. 1988 Conference Location: Trieste, Italy

Abstract: Three topics of current interest in the study of quantum

ballistic transport in a two-dimensional electron gas are discussed, with

an emphasis on correspondences between classical trajectories and quantum

states in the various experimental geometries. The authors consider the

quantized conductance of point contacts, the quenching of the Hall effect

in narrow channels, and coherent electron focusing in a double-point

contact geometry. (23 Refs)

Title: Aharonov-Bohm effect in normal metal. Quantum coherence and

transport

Author(s): Washburn, S.; Webb, R.A.

Author Affiliation: IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,

NY, USA

Journal: Advances in Physics vol.35, no.4 p.375-422

Publication Date: July-Aug. 1986 Country of Publication: UK

Experimental (X)

Abstract: Reviews some of the recent surprising theoretical and

experimental results obtained on the transport properties of small

disordered metal samples. Even in the presence of disorder, the quantum

mechanical interference of electron wavefunctions can still be observed.

The Aharonov-Bohm effect is a particularly clear demonstration of this. In

doubly connected structures (such as loops of wire) threaded by a magnetic

flux, the electrical conductance oscillates because of the Aharonov-Bohm

effect. In fact, because the electron trajectories are diffusive (i.e.

random walks), even a lone wire (a singly connected structure) will exhibit

a random pattern of conductance fluctuations as a function of the magnetic

field because of the same interference effects. All that is required for

the observation of these interferences is that the electrons retain 'phase

memory' during the period of transit through the sample. The length over

which memory is maintained (the phase coherence length) can be much larger

than the random walk step length (the mean free path). The authors focus

mainly on effects observed in the limit where the phase coherence length of

the electrons is comparable to or larger than the sample size. They explain

how the interferences are averaged as the system size grows larger than the

phase coherence length. They also remark on surprising aspects of the

fluctuations such as those resulting from the non-local character of the

wavefunction; some of the results are forbidden classically. (152 Refs)

02869331 INSPEC Abstract Number: A87052640

Title: Quantum transport theory for small-geometry structures

Author(s): Barker, J.R.

Author Affiliation: Dept. of Electron., Glasgow Univ., UK

Conference Title: Physics and Fabrication of Microstructures and

Microdevices. Proceedings of the Winter School p.210-30

Editor(s): Kelly, M.J.; Weisbuch, C.

Publisher: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, West Germany

Publication Date: 1986 Country of Publication: West Germany xi+469

pp.

Language: English Document Type: Conference Paper (PA)

Treatment: Theoretical (T)

Abstract: Presents an elementary introduction to quantum transport and

tunnelling in very small structures. The emphasis is on quantum ballistic

systems for which collision processes are less significant than the free

carrier motion in the strongly inhomogeneous (and possibly quantising)

potential fields provided by the device structure. Quantum ballistic

transport occurs when the carrier transit time is substantially shorter

than the mean free time for inelastic collisions. Effects which may arise

include size quantisation, localisation phenomena, low-dimensional effects,

tunnelling and resonance phenomena. (47 Refs)

(not at Dartmouth)

03505612 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89142419

Title: Universal conductance fluctuations and quantum interference effects

in microstructures

Author(s): Stone, A.D.

Author Affiliation: Appl. Phys. Labs., Yale Univ., New Haven, CT, USA

Conference Title: Physics and Technology of Submicron Structures.

Proceedings of the Fifth International Winter School p.108-27

Editor(s): Heinrich, H.; Bauer, G.; Kuchar, F.

Publisher: Springer-Verlag, Berlin, West Germany

Publication Date: 1988 Country of Publication: West Germany ix+287

pp.

ISBN: 3 540 19109 7

Conference Date: 22-26 Feb. 1988 Conference Location: Mauterndorf,

Austria

Abstract: The low-temperature conducting properties of microstructures

are observed to vary in a random manner as a function of magnetic field or

carrier density. These fluctuations are sample-specific, but

time-independent and reproducible within a given sample. It is now

understood that these fluctuations result from random quantum interference

of diffusing electrons. The author reviews the recently-developed theory of

these novel fluctuation phenomena, which predict that the order of

magnitude of the absolute fluctuations in the conductance of any metallic

system is e/sup 2//h, as long as the conductor is probed on length scales

of the order of the inelastic diffusion length. Differences between the

behavior of the fluctuations measured in a two-probe as compared to a

multi-probe geometry are discussed, and some recent results relevant to the

multi-probe case are presented. A recent hypothesis relating these

time-independent fluctuation effects to low-frequency noise in dirty metals

is reviewed, and a decisive experiment for testing the theory is proposed.

(43 Refs)

Location: Phys-Sci QC/176/A1/P517/1988

02800582 INSPEC Abstract Number: A87012811, B87006426

Title: Resonant tunneling through double barriers, perpendicular quantum

transport phenomena in superlattices, and their device applications

Author(s): Capasso, F.; Mohammed, K.; Cho, A.Y.

Author Affiliation: AT&T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ, USA

Journal: IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics vol.QE-22, no.9 p.

1853-69

Publication Date: Sept. 1986 Country of Publication: USA

Treatment: Bibliography (B); General, Review (G); Experimental (X)

Abstract: New results on the physics of tunneling in quantum-well

heterostructures and its device applications are discussed. Following a

general review of the field, resonant tunneling through double barriers is

investigated. Recent conflicting interpretations of this effect in terms of

a Fabry-Perot mechanism or sequential tunneling are reconciled via an

analysis of scattering. The role of symmetry is quantitatively analyzed and

two recently proposed resonant tunneling transistor structures are

discussed. Perpendicular transport in superlattices is discussed.

Experimental results on tunneling superlattice photoconductors based on

effective mass filtering are presented. Negative differential resistance

resulting from localization in a high electric field is discussed.

Sequential resonant tunneling in superlattices is reported. An analogy

between this phenomenon and paramagnetic spin resonance is shown. Tunable

infrared semiconductor lasers and wavelength-selective detectors based on

this effect are discussed. (54 Refs)

Title: Conductance oscillations periodic in the density of one-dimensional

electron gases

Author(s): Field, S.B.; Kastner, M.A.; Meirav, U.; Scott-Thomas, J.H.F.;

Antoniadis, D.A.; Smith, H.I.; Wind, S.J.

Author Affiliation: MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA

Journal: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter) vol.42, no.6 p.

3523-36

Publication Date: 15 Aug. 1990 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Results are reported of a detailed study of the conductance

oscillations in one-dimensional (1D) Si inversion layers. A comparison is

made with results for GaAs accumulation layers. The conductance oscillates

by as much as a factor of 100 and is accurately periodic in the number of

electrons per unit length. The period varies randomly from sample to

sample, and changes when a single sample is warmed to room temperature and

remeasured at low temperature. Multiple periods are often observed, and the

amplitude of the individual frequency components can be altered by moving

the electron gas from side to side with a transverse electric field. These

observations suggest that the period is determined by the distance between

charged defects near the 1D channel. Measurements of the temperature

dependence indicate that the oscillatory conductance reflects a periodic

energy for a thermally activated conductance mechanism as well as a

parallel oscillatory tunneling mechanism. The period of the conductance

oscillations is found to be surprisingly independent of magnetic field B.

However, the random modulation of the amplitude of the oscillations is

reduced by a B field normal to the semiconductor surface, as it is by

increasing temperature. (20 Refs)

XXCO JAP

XXBB J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 68, No. 11, 1 December 1990

Pages 5741 - 5749

XXTT Duality and fluxonics in superconducting devices

XXAU A. M. Kadin

XXLO Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester,

New York 14627

XXSD (Received 6 June 1990; accepted for publication 16 August 1990)

XXDA #TP T #YR 90 #XN 7460Ge #XN 8525-j #XN 7475+t

XXJN #54 426001 #56 US #80 07 #81 SUPERCONDUCTING DEVICES :T1; MAGNETIC FLUX

:Q1; MOTION; ELECTRIC CHARGES; DUALITY; QUANTIZATION; HIGH-TC SUPERCONDUCTORS;

XXAB The concept of electrical duality is reviewed, with a focus on the symmetry

between the motion of charge and the motion of magnetic flux. This approach is

especially illuminating for the case of a superconductor, in which flux is

quantized in units of Phi [sub 0]=h/2e. In a two-dimensional

superconductor, a quantized vortex or fluxon can be viewed as the dual of an

electron. Based on this analogy, new superconducting ``fluxonic'' device

concepts are proposed, including optical detectors and transistors. Finally, the

implications of this picture for low- and high-temperature superconductors are

evaluated.

Magnetization Curve at Zero Temperature for the Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Linear Chain

R. B. Griffiths

Physical Review, Vol. 133, A768

Coulomb Blockade:

03873561 INSPEC Abstract Number: A91061557

Title: Current-voltage characteristic of double normal tunnel junctions

Author(s): Laikhtman, B.

Author Affiliation: IBM Res. Div., Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown

Heights, NY, USA

Journal: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter) vol.43, no.4, pt.A p.

2731-4

Publication Date: 1 Feb. 1991 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The current-voltage characteristic of two tunnel injunctions in

series is evaluated under the conditions of the Coulomb blockade. With use

of the quasiclassical description suggested by Mullen et al. (1988) a

transport equation for this system is written down and solved, which allows

the author to give an analytical expression for the Coulomb staircase. The

tunnel current below the Coulomb threshold is evaluated to the second order

of the perturbation theory. (22 Refs)

Title: Frequency-locked turnstile device for single electrons

Author(s): Geerligs, L.J.; Anderegg, V.F.; Holweg, P.A.M.; Mooij, J.E.;

Pothier, H.; Esteve, D.; Urbina, C.; Devoret, M.H.

Author Affiliation: Dept. of Appl. Phys., Delft Univ. of Technol.,

Netherlands

Journal: Physical Review Letters vol.64, no.22 p.2691-4

Publication Date: 28 May 1990 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The authors have fabricated an array of ultrasmall tunnel

junctions which acts like a turnstile for single electrons. When

alternating voltage of frequency f is applied to a gate, one electron is

transferred per cycle through the device. This results in a current plateau

in the current-voltage characteristic at I=ef. The overall behavior of the

device is well explained by the theory of Coulomb blockade of electron

tunneling. The authors discuss the accuracy limitations of this device. (7

Refs)

Title: Theory of mesoscopic tunnel junctions: From shot noise to the

standard quantum limit

Author(s): Ueda, M.; Hatakenaka, N.

Author Affiliation: NTT Basic Res. Labs., Tokyo, Japan

Journal: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter) vol.43, no.6 p.

4975-87

Publication Date: 15 Feb. 1991 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The authors predict two distinct types of crossovers and

fundamental quantum-noise limits that single-electron-tunneling (SET)

statistics in an ultrasmall normal tunnel junction will exhibit as external

macroscopic conditions are changed. When the product of source voltage V

and electrostatic capacitance C of the junction is given, SET events

exhibit a crossover from random shot noise to Coulomb-regulated

oscillations as the ratio of source-to-tunnel resistance R/sub S//R/sub T/

becomes larger. This regularity, however, has a fundamental upper bound,

which the authors refer to as the standard quantum limit. It is shown that

the standard quantum limit does not originate from the current or from

thermal fluctuations but originates from the time-energy uncertainty

principle that is inherent in quantum-mechanical tunneling. In particular,

the time-energy uncertainty relationship is derived this being unique to

single-electron tunneling by Coulomb blockade. On the other hand, when the

ratio to source-to-tunnel resistance R/sub S//R/sub T/, is given, it is

found that the degree of randomness of SET oscillations decreases as the

product CV reduces to an optimum value above e/2, but that it rapidly

increases as the product further reduces towards e/2. Such an optimum value

is shown to emerge as a balancing point between an ordering force (arising

from Coulomb blockade) and a fluctuating force (caused by

quantum-mechanical tunneling). The optimum value is numerically evaluated

over a wide range of the ratio R/sub S//R/sub T/. The whole analysis

employs a semiclassical model but it is based on an exact, analytic

methodology. By so doing, a critical point is reached where the

semiclassical theory of Coulomb blockade manifestly breaks down. (26 Refs)

03923105 INSPEC Abstract Number: A91092948

Title: Charge quantization effects in networks of small capacitance tunnel

junctions

Author(s): Mooij, J.E.; Geerligs, L.J.

Author Affiliation: Dept. of Appl. Phys., Delft Univ. of Technol.,

Netherlands

Journal: Physica B vol.169 p.32-6

Publication Date: Feb. 1991 Country of Publication: Netherlands

Conference Title: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Low

Temperature Physics

Conference Date: 16-22 Aug. 1990 Conference Location: Brighton, UK

Abstract: Effects of charge quantization have been studied in tunnel

junctions with small capacitance. In the normal state the Coulomb blockade,

the modulation of conductance by a gate voltage and tunneling across

multiple junctions through virtual states are observed. A 'turnstile'

device has been developed that transmits exactly one electron in each cycle

of an AC-gate voltage. In 2D arrays a charge-anticharge pair unbinding

transition is discussed. In arrays of superconducting junctions a phase

transition occurs at zero temperature between insulating behavior for

high-resistance junctions and superconducting behavior for junction

resistances below 14 k Omega . (13 Refs)

Title: The charge-effect transistor

Author(s): Amman, M.; Mullen, K.; Ben-Jacob, E.

Author Affiliation: Dept. of Phys., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Journal: Journal of Applied Physics vol.65, no.1 p.339-46

Publication Date: 1 Jan. 1989 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The authors present a theoretical study of the current-voltage

characteristic of a new transistor based upon the 'Coulomb blockade.' In

mesoscopic (submicron) tunnel junctions the flow of current can be blocked

by the electrostatic charging energy of a single electron. The

charge-effect transistor is composed of two mesoscopic tunnel junctions

connected in series with a gate terminal capacitively coupled to the

interjunction region. Such a device has been shown to lead to a Coulomb

staircase in the current-voltage characteristic when the gate voltage is

zero. The authors study the effect of the gate voltage on the current

through the device for various ranges of junction parameters. They study

junctions made from both normal metal and superconductors. They examine the

current noise at different operating points and find it comparable to, but

lower than, that in ordinary shot-noise devices. (35 Refs)

03478757 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89127149

03773254 INSPEC Abstract Number: A91003620

Title: Coulomb blockade on imaged mesoscopic lead grains

Author(s): Wan, J.-C.; McGreer, K.A.; Anand, N.; Nowak, E.; Goldman, A.M.

Author Affiliation: Sch. of Phys. & Astron. & Center for the Sci. &

Application of Superconductivity, Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN, USA

Journal: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter) vol.42, no.9 p.5604-9

Publication Date: 1 Sept. 1990 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Low-temperature scanning-tunneling-microscope (STM) studies of

charging effects have been carried out on granular lead films. Well-defined

Coulomb-staircase and Coulomb-blockade I-V characteristics were frequently

observed. For the first time, the latter were observed in the tunneling

characteristics of grains imaged with scanning tunneling microscopy.

Capacitances (<10/sup -18/ F) calculated from the I-V characteristics are

compared to the values estimated from the STM images of these grains. In

addition to the charging effects, an anomalous nonlinearity in the

tunneling current was observed. (16 Refs)

03830279 INSPEC Abstract Number: A91036871

Title: Single-electron and oxide-impurity effects in junctions formed by a

cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope

Author(s): Wilkins, R.; Amman, M.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Jaklevic, R.C.

Author Affiliation: Dept. of Phys., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA

Journal: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter) vol.42, no.13, pt.B

p.8698-701

Publication Date: 1 Nov. 1990 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The authors show that the I-V characteristics measured at 4 K

of single tunnel junctions between the tip of a scanning tunneling

microscope and a metallic sample are sensitive to the materials used. The

superconducting energy gap of lead is observed for tips without surface

oxides, but eliminated for tips with thick oxides. Probing bulk etched

tungsten, observation of the Coulomb staircase suggests capacitive effects

due to a small metallic-oxide impurity. This provides direct evidence that

such impurities can dominate junction response, sometimes imitating a

single-junction Coulomb blockade. (28 Refs)

03598662 INSPEC Abstract Number: A90055201

Title: Inelastic tunneling spectroscopy and single-electron tunneling in

an adjustable microscopic tunnel junction

Author(s): Gregory, S.

Author Affiliation: Bellcore, Red Bank, NJ, USA

Journal: Physical Review Letters vol.64, no.6 p.689-92

Publication Date: 5 Feb. 1990 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: A remarkably stable microscopic tunnel junction can be made

with two crossed wires separated by a monolayer of adsorbed molecules.

Inelastic tunneling peaks of hydrocarbons are clearly resolved. A wide

Coulomb blockade of single-electron tunneling is observed, indicating that

stray capacitance does not influence the microscopic junction. (10 Refs)

Organic

NOTE: the primary articles on organic metals (1D systems: charge transfer salts and polymers) are reprinted in the book by Yu Lu, or are in the NATO proceedings books; these are on the book reference list.

XXBB Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 60, No. 3, July 1988

Pages 781 - 850

XXTT Solitons in conducting polymers

XXAU A. J. Heeger

XXLO Department of Physics and Institute for Polymers and Organic Solids,

University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106

XXAU S. Kivelson

XXLO Department of Physics, SUNY at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York

11794-3800

XXAU J. R. Schrieffer

XXLO Department of Physics and Institute forTheoretical Physics, University of

California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106

XXAU W.-P. Su

XXLO Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004

XXDA #TP R #YR 88 #XN 7220Ht #XN 7220Jv #XN 7280Le #XN 7138+i

XXJN #56 US #80 11 #81 SOLITONS :Q1,Q2; POLYACETYLENES :T1; POLYMERS; REVIEWS;

ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY :Q1,Q2; CHARGE CARRIERS; HAMILTONIANS; POLARONS; GROUND

00774534 INSPEC Abstract Number: A75045613

Title: Linear polyene electronic structure and spectroscopy

Author(s): Hudson, B.; Kohler, B.

Author Affiliation: Stanford Univ., CA, USA

Book Title: Annual review of physical chemistry. vol.25 p.437-60

Editor(s): Eyring, H.

Publisher: Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA, USA

Publication Date: 1974 Country of Publication: USA viii+566 pp.

Abstract: The authors present a state-of-the-art review of polyene

spectroscopy. It is shown that the presence of an excited singlet state at

an energy below that of the /sup 1/B/sub u/ state reconciles the apparently

anomalous fluorescence of polyenes with the behaviour of other molecules,

although this is in contradiction to the results of LCAO calculations.

Calculations involving doubly excited configurations in the CI treatment

have had more success in accounting for this state, but the theory is by no

means complete. On the experimental side, it is shown that low temperature,

mixed crystal experiments coupled to vibrational spectroscopy is the most

promising approach to polyene spectroscopy. (1766 Refs)

Nanoclusters

XXCO RMP

XXBB Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 58, No. 3, July 1986

Pages 533 - 606

XXTT Quantum size effects in metal particles

XXAU W. P. Halperin

XXLO Department of Physics, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201

XXDA #TP R #YR 86 #XN 3640+d

XXJN #56 US #80 15 #81 energy levels; magnetic susceptibility; particle size;

specific heat; nuclear magnetic resonance; knight shift; particles;

size effect :q2; l-s coupling; reviews; atomic clusters :q1,T2; metals :T1;

evaporation; absorption spectra; electronic structure :q2;

XXAB The subject of small metallic particle properties is outlined with emphasis

on quantum electronic effects. The theoretical background for interpretation of

experiments is discussed beginning with the work of Kubo. More recent

amendments to this have been included, taking into account the techniques of

random matrix theory and effects of the spin-orbit interaction. A general

review of experimental work is presented in order to permit a comprehensive

evaluation of current understanding of the quantum size effect on the

electronic spectrum. This survey includes magnetic susceptibility, nuclear

magnetic resonance, electron spin resonance, heat capacity, optical, and

infrared absorption measurements. These are discussed in many instances from

the point of view of there being competing size effects arising from a reduced

volume contrasted with those from the surface. A number of stimulating and

provocative results have led to the development of new areas of research

involving metallic clusters such as cluster beam techniques, far-infrared

absorption by particle clusters, adsorbate NMR, and particle-matrix composites.

Although there is little question that the experiments themselves indicate the

existence of quantum effects, there are as yet, insufficient results to test

the theoretical predictions for electron-level distribution functions based on

fundamental symmetries of the electron Hamiltonian. A new suggestion for

measurement of the electron-level correlation function is made using the

magnetic field dependence of the NMR Knight shift. Particle preparation methods

are also reviewed with commentary on the problems and advantages of these

techniques for investigation of quantum electronic effects.

ORDERED ILL COPY:

03567213 INSPEC Abstract Number: A90036018

Title: Synthesis, stabilization, and electronic structure of quantum semiconductor nanoclusters

Author(s): Steigerwald, M.L.; Brus, L.E.

Author Affiliation: AT&T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ, USA

Book Title: Annual review of material science. Vol.19 p.471-95

Editor(s): Huggins, R.A.; Giordmaine, J.A.; Wachtman, J.B.

Publisher: Annual Reviews, Palo Alto, CA, USA

Publication Date: 1989 Country of Publication: USA viii+562 pp.

Abstract: The authors review the developing synthesis schemes for making

size-selected, stabilized semiconductor clusters. They also briefly outline

the molecular orbital theory of size dependent band structure development

in order to show how these clusters differ from bulk materials. (31 Refs)

03482461 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89128089

Title: GaAs clusters in the quantum size regime: growth on high surface

area silica by molecular beam epitaxy

Author(s): Sandroff, C.J.; Harbison, J.P.; Ramesh, R.; Andrejco, M.J.;

Hegde, M.S.; Hwang, D.M.; Chang, C.C.; Vogel, E.M.

Author Affiliation: Bellcore, Red Bank, NJ, USA

Journal: Science vol.245, no.4916 p.391-3

Abstract: Molecular beam epitaxy has been used to grow microcrystalline

clusters of gallium arsenide (GaAs) in the size range from 2.5 to 60

nanometers on high-purity, amorphous silica supports. High-resolution

transmission electron microscopy reveals that clusters as small as 3.5

nanometers have good crystalline order with a lattice constant equal to

that of bulk GaAs. Study of the microcrystallite surfaces by X-ray

photoelectron spectroscopy shows that they are covered with a shell (1.0 to

1.5 nanometers thick) of native oxides of gallium and arsenic (Ga/sub

2/O/sub 3/ and As/sub 2/O/sub 3/), whose presence could explain the low

luminescence efficiency of the clusters. Optical absorption spectra of the

supported GaAs are consistent with the blue-shifted band edge expected for

semiconductor microcrystallites in the quantum size regime. (25 Refs)

02974814 INSPEC Abstract Number: A87118979

Title: Theory of the linear and nonlinear optical properties of

semiconductor microcrystallites

Author(s): Schmitt-Rink, S.; Miller, D.A.B.; Chemla, D.S.

Author Affiliation: AT&T Bell Labs. Murray Hill, NJ, USA

Journal: Physical Review B (Condensed Matter) vol.35, no.15 p.

8113-25

Publication Date: 15 May 1987 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The authors analyze theoretically the optical properties of

ideal semiconductor crystallites so small that they show quantum

confinement in all three dimensions (quantum dots (QD's)). In the limit of

a QD much smaller than the bulk exciton size, the linear spectrum will be a

series of lines, and the authors consider the phonon broadening of these

lines. The lowest interband transition will saturate like a two-level

system, without exchange and Coulomb screening. Depending on the

broadening, the absorption and the changes in absorption and refractive

index resulting from saturation can become very large, and the local-field

effects can become so strong as to give optical bistability without

external feedback. The small QD limit is more readily achieved with

narrow-band-gap semiconductors. (50 Refs)

Title: Biosysthesis of cadmium sulphide quantum semiconductor crystallites

Author(s): Dameron, C.T.; Reese, R.N.; Mehra, R.K.; Kortan, A.R.;

Carroll, P.J.; Steigerwald, M.L.; Brus, L.E.; Winge, D.R.

Author Affiliation: University of Utah Medical Center, Salt Lake City,

Utah, USA

Journal: Nature vol.338 p. 596-597

Publication Date: 13 Apr. 1989

Hall Effect

XXBB Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol. 59, No. 3, July 1987

Pages 781 - 824

XXTT Integral quantum Hall effect for nonspecialists

XXAU D. R. Yennie

XXLO Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853,

Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara,

California 93106 and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, California

94305

XXDA #TP R #YR 87 #XN 7215Gd #XN 7220My

XXJN #52 P #54 656002 #56 US #80 08 #81 HALL EFFECT :T1; THREE-DIMENSIONAL

CALCULATIONS; QUANTIZATION :Q1; PERTURBATION THEORY; REVIEWS; MATHEMATICAL

MODELS; #83 QUANTUM HALL EFFECT :T2; REVIEWS :Q2;

XXAB An attempt is made to develop a description of the multielectron quantum

state responsible for the integral quantum Hall effect. One goal is to provide

intuitive support for the very powerful and general argument of Laughlin that

the theoretical relationship is insensitive to complicating details in the

interior of the sample. The model the author uses is somewhat more realistic

than heretofore in that it is three dimensional, does not ignore the atomic

structure of the bulk matter, and does not use an effective-mass approximation.

In order to treat the problem quantum mechanically, the complete system,

including circuitry external to the system of interest, is replaced by a model

closed system consisting of a finite number of electrons. In this model, states

with a finite Hall current and voltage are metastable against decay

caused by interactions outside the model, such as those with bulk matter

excitations. Such states describe the true situation well only in the

conductivity plateaus; between plateaus, there would be current flow between

the Hall voltage probes corresponding to decaying states. Experimental

constraints replace this transverse current by a voltage drop along the

direction of current flow. The interactions between the electrons are expressed

in terms of a self-consistent potential which gives an independent-particle

description as a starting point, and residual interactions which are treated by

perturbation theory. The self-consistent potential is found to be important in

understanding the properties of the quantum state of the system, such as the

existence of the plateaus in conductivity and how the electrons in the

(effective) two-dimensional region come to equilibrium with the different Fermi

levels in the voltage probes. To all finite orders of perturbation theory, the

residual interactions are found not to alter the quantized Hall conductivity.

Author: NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics and Applications of

Quantum Wells and Superlattices (1987 : Erice, Sicily)

Title: Physics and applications of quantum wells and superlattices /

edited by E.E. Mendez and K. von Klitzing.

Imprint: New York : Plenum Press, c1987.

Series: NATO ASI series. Series B, Physics ; v. 170.

Location: Phys-Sci QC/611.8/S86/N38/1987

H.L. Stormer. Images of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, in:

Title: Heterojunctions and semiconductor superlattices : proceedings

of the winter school, Les Houches, France, March 12-21, 1985 /

editors, G. Allan ... [et al.].

Imprint: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, c1986.

Location: Phys-Sci QC/611.6/J85/H48/1986

Popular Articles:

02749969 INSPEC Abstract Number: A86113158

Title: The quantized Hall effect

Author(s): Halperin, B.I.

Journal: Scientific American vol.254, no.4 p.40-8

Publication Date: April 1986 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: This variation on a classical phenomenon makes it possible,

even in an irregular sample, to measure fundamental constants with an

accuracy rivaling that of the most precise measurements yet made. (0 Refs)

Descriptors: quantum Hall effect

Identifiers: quantized Hall effect

Class Codes: A7220M (Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects);

A7340L (Semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and

heterojunctions)

02905326 INSPEC Abstract Number: A87076968, B87037860

Title: Ballistic electrons in semiconductors

Author(s): Heiblum, M.; Eastman, L.F.

Journal: Scientific American vol.256, no.2 p.64-73

Publication Date: Feb. 1987 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Devices in which electrons carry current without being

scattered promise to be much faster than present-day components. They also

allow close study of the electron's quantum-mechanical properties. (0

Refs)

03275704 INSPEC Abstract Number: B89002304

Title: The quantum-effect device: tomorrow's transistor?

Author(s): Bate, R.T.

Journal: Scientific American vol.258, no.3 p.78-82

Publication Date: March 1988 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: The components of ordinary integrated circuits can be made only

so small before disruptive effects impair their function. A new species of

semiconductor device based on an AlGaAs-GaAs quantum dot structure could

take over. (0 Refs)

03414781 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89084113

Title: Quantum interference and the Aharonov-Bohm effect

Author(s): Imry, Y.; Webb, R.A.

Author Affiliation: Weizmann Inst. of Sci., Rehovoth, Israel

Journal: Scientific American vol.260, no.4 p.36-42

Publication Date: April 1989 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: These counterintuitive effects play important roles in the

theory of electromagnetic interactions, in solid-state physics and possibly

in the development of new microelectronic devices. (4 Refs)

03935114 INSPEC Abstract Number: A91098469, B91049617

Title: Diminishing dimensions

Author(s): Corcoran, E.

Journal: Scientific American vol.263, no.5 p.122-6,128-31

Publication Date: Nov. 1990 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Materials scientists are manipulating matter in layers just an

atom thick to form materials that will be the building blocks of complex

electronic and optical devices. The key issue facing researchers snow, is

how to fashion these novel materials-semiconductor quantum wells, wires and

dots-into working devices. The promise is a new generation of computers and

lasers. (0 Refs)

00657416 INSPEC Abstract Number: A74052309

Title: Inorganic polymers

Author(s): Allcock, H.R.

Journal: Scientific American vol.230, no.3 p.66-74

Publication Date: March 1974 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Most commercial polymers are long-chain molecules with carbon

atoms in their backbone. New families of polymers with backbones of atoms

other than carbon are yielding materials with unusual characteristics.

03264829 INSPEC Abstract Number: A89002367

Title: Plastics that conduct electricity

Author(s): Kaner, R.B.; MacDiarmid, A.G.

Journal: Scientific American vol.258, no.2 p.60-5

Publication Date: Feb. 1988 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: Discusses the discovery, production and uses of doped polymers

which conduct electricity. The dopants are ionic triplets and the plastic's

conductivity is increased a billion times. A lightweight battery is one of

many applications. (0 Refs)

01470262 INSPEC Abstract Number: A80024887

Title: Linear-chain conductors

Author(s): Epstein, A.J.; Miller, J.S.

Journal: Scientific American vol.241, no.4 p.48-57

Publication Date: Oct. 1979 Country of Publication: USA

Abstract: A few materials with a linear or columnar architecture conduct

electricity well only along a single axis. The one-dimensional organization

of such a material shapes its electronic properties. (0 Refs)

Title: Silicon Lights Up: Researchers tease silicon into emitting light.

Journal: Scientific American vol.265, no.1 p.108-9

Publication Date: July 1991 Country of Publication: USA

Title: Fullerines

Journal: Scientific American vol. 265, no.4 p.54-63

Publication Date: Oct. 1991 Country of Publication: USA

Popular Short Blurbs:

page

Laying on of atoms: Quantum well wires. Science News 135, 69

Growing and carving micro-laser forests (Harbison). Science News 136, 68

Semiconductor studies get a rise from yeast. Science News 136, 231

Forging superstrong conducting polymers. Science News 136, 356

Making chicken wire of molecular size (buckyballs). Science News 136 406

Making new materials molecule by molecule. Science News 137, 166

Conductive polymers get closer to home. Science News 137, 230

Salty superconductor champ (Organic ET at 12.8K). Science News 138, 167

Atom clusters act bigger than their britches. Science News 138, 279

Buckeyballs get their first major physical. Science News 138, 357

Light induced current in a quantum well. Science News 138, 47

Profile emerges of well-rounded molecule (buckyballs).Science News 138 197

Totally organic electronics. Science News 138, 207

Crystal growers seek bacterial know-how... Science News 138 382

Disorderly Light-conductance fluctuations vs. classical optics. Science News 139 248

Progress in desingning magnetic polymers. Science News 139 254

Hot time for polymer magnet, Scinece News 140, 15

STM scientists storng-arm silicon atoms. Science News 140 21

Teflon grid brings order to thin films, Scinece News 140 71

Ploymer shifts light in two directions, Science News 140, 77

Hot times for buckyball superconductors. Science News 140, 84

Silicon now snines with optical potential. Science News 140, 135

Buckyballs still charm. Science News 140, 120

Pushing lasers on a chip into the blue, Science News 140, 183