* Sputtering clean
- Sputtering clean has been shown to be the most universal technique for obtaining atomically clean metal surfaces in a vacuum environment
- For insulators and plastics, exposure to a plasma may result in surface changes that given better adhesion
- The high ejection energy of sputtered atoms is often suggested as a factor in improving film structure and adhesion to the substrate. But it is discovered that, where sputtering clean is not used, the adhesion of a given material to a given substrate is the same for sputtered deposit as for evaporated deposits.